Environmental, Mass Torts & Land Use

HBS is unique in our state-wide reach and connection with numerous local governments.  For our clients who are dealing with Environmental, Mass Tort and Land Use issues, these advantages will, in many cases, translate into timely resolution and desirable outcomes.

About Our Practice

Environmental Law

One of the most dynamic and high-profile legal areas today, Environmental Law has an impact that reaches every segment of our society. Made up of global, international, national, state and local statutes, treaties, conventions, regulations and policies, environmental law seeks to protect the environment and natural resources from the affects of or endangerment by human activities.  Environmental decisions not only impact a company’s ability to do business, but they also affect the water we drink and the air we breathe. Hall Booth Smith attorneys bring extensive experience in the environmental legal arena. We consult with businesses to pursue permits and to ensure compliance. We work as defense counsel to help companies maintain their financial health and positive public image. We also work hand-in-hand with government agencies to ensure necessary public projects continue to move forward while minimizing impacts to our natural resources. Our attorneys have participated in more than twenty trials involving environmental issues.

Mass Torts

Mass tort litigation refers to circumstances where a company or individual is accused of doing harm to multiple people as a result of an action or product. Cases in this practice area include product liability claims,  large business antitrust claims, and large scale “man-made” disasters. Mass marketing of products, the mass media, and the evolution of plaintiff law firms have lead to an increase in mass tort cases. These cases are extremely complicated and can be potentially devastating to companies.  The attorneys at HBS have extensive experience handling the complex litigation matters presented in mass tort cases and offer you the best defense at a reasonable cost. We have successfully represented clients in toxic tort/products liability cases, complex chemical issues, large toxic mold cases, asbestos-related claims, and environmentally related claims.

Land Use

In today’s ever changing real estate market, land developers experience more environmental hurdles than ever before, making appropriate due diligence a must and a typical transaction more often a difficult task.  The attorneys who make up the HBS Land Use Practice Group represent a variety of clientele involved in these transactions, including individual home owners; lenders; and small, medium, and large land development companies.  We are well versed in the laws concerning water, land, and green technology issues in the Southeast. Our attorneys work with developers and  local governments to provide long-term minimization of environmental issues while obtaining the highest and best use of real estate.

Our experience on both sides of the issues helps us stay very aware of the sensitivities and details that affect our clients in this delicate area of practice. The attorneys of Hall Booth Smith’s Environmental, Mass Torts & Land Use Practice Group have represented clients for more than thirteen years in almost every facet of environmental litigation including:

  • Due Diligence Investigations
  • Environmental Permitting
  • Real Estate Development Issues
  • Environmental Assessments and Audits
  • Regulatory and Permit Compliance
  • Loss Prevention
  • Mold Related Litigation
  • Chemical Release Litigation
  • Asbestos Related Litigation
  • Class Action Defense

HBS brings a unique understanding of how to work with governmental authorities to obtain the approvals our clients seek.  Even though we seek a mutual agreement on permitting issues with the regulatory agencies, we are not adverse to pursuing judicial review where approvals are not forthcoming.  Likewise, when litigation of environmental disputes is warranted, HBS has the experience and knowledge  to provide expert representation.

The voice of our law firm is heard through the individual involvement of our attorneys in environmental commitments:

  • Georgia representative on the Environmental and Natural Resources Committee for the National Council of State Legislators
  • Special Executive Counsel to Governor Sonny Purdue on water issues
  • Georgia Economic Developers Association member
  • Southeastern Energy Society members
  • Authored many articles on environmental issues
  • Georgia Association of Water Professionals
  • Smart Growth Newton County Board of Directors
  • Covington Urban Redevelopment Authority
  • Member of the Metropolitan North Georgia Water Planning District’s Basin Advisory Council for the Ocmulgee River Basin and the City of Covington
  • Member of the Agricultural Education Advisory Commission

HBS attorneys have a wide range of experience representing entities in Environmental, Mass Torts and Land Use cases. Our attorneys are typically involved in matters ranging from $1 million to $100 million.  We have represented individuals, lenders, businesses, and governmental entities in almost every facet of the environmental law, mass torts & land use including:


We assist clients with respect to the various reporting and recordkeeping obligations under the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act (EPCRA) including emergency planning and notification, emergency release reporting obligations, chemical hazard reporting, toxic release (Form R) reporting, the resolution of compliance and enforcement matters relating to these obligations, and pre-inspection preparation.

Threatened & Endangered Species

We represent clients on issues relating to threatened, endangered, and listed species at the local, state, and federal level. At the local level, we advise and represent clients in connection with the development and the application of local land use regulations designed to safeguard these species. At the state level, we deal directly with the Environmental Protection Division and Wildlife Resources Division  on issues relating to the possible impacts of development activities on wildlife, including species of special concern. And, at the federal level, we deal directly with the US Fish & Wildlife Service on issues relating to federally threatened or endangered species and their critical habitat.  We also represent clients in enforcement proceedings when there has been an alleged violation of local, state, or federal criteria relating to a protected species.

Environmental Due Diligence

We assist clients in evaluating land use and environmental issues and in resolving regulatory challenges posed by different types of development. These activities include assisting clients with environmental and land use “due diligence” prior to purchasing or developing real property for residential, commercial, and industrial development such as conducting land use and zoning verification, reviewing the status of development and environmental permits, reviewing agency files, and meeting with zoning and environmental officials regarding particular issues. As a result of these due diligence activities, we assist clients in identifying potential land use and environmental issues and in resolving those issues at the outset of a transaction.  Later in the process, we represent clients through the permitting process and any appeals or challenges.   We also assist clients in the negotiation of various environmental representations, warranties, covenants, and releases which have become a “standard” part of the development agreements, leases, easements, mortgages and loan agreements involved in the clients’ land development efforts.

Environmental Litigation (Overview)

We have substantial trial, transactional, and regulatory experience in a broad range of subjects and have developed skills in managing large, complex litigation and regulatory matters in an economical manner. These include matters involving solid waste, air and water quality, water rights and water supply,  RCRA, EPCRA, the Clear Air Act, CWA, toxic torts, tank regulation, indoor air quality, land use, worker protection, and community right-to-know. Our attorneys work regularly with scientists in a wide range of specialties, and we have vast experience in working with toxicologists, epidemiologists, immunologists, geologists, geohydrologists, oncologists, chemists, and biochemists.

Mold and Microbial Contaminants

The evaluation and remediation of mold or other microbial “contamination” can be technically challenging at best. We advise clients as to the applicable state and federal regulatory guidance, the retention of consultants and remediation contractors, the implementation of remediation projects in occupied space, the coordination with other regulatory requirements (such as renovations involving asbestos containing building materials), the environmental due diligence and contract/lease drafting issues involving mold concerns, and the development of property management and maintenance employee guidance for dealing with mold in commercial and residential properties.


We assist clients with all phases of permitting from developing pre-application or pre-renewal strategies through the application process, negotiation of permit conditions, challenges to proposed permit conditions, and other permit compliance and enforcement matters. We represent clients before all federal, state, and local agencies and boards, including the US Environmental Protection Agency, the US Army Corps of Engineers, the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, and the Georgia Environmental Protection Division, and local governments. Our state-wide presence and relationships with local and agency staff and management, plus out strong legal and government affairs teams in Atlanta, enables us to craft solutions to thorny regulatory problems. Substantive areas include water (supply, reuse, industrial and domestic wastewater facility permitting, stormwater, and NPDES), solid and hazardous waste (landfills, transfer stations, used oil recycling, and solid waste management facilities), coastal construction, marinas, wetlands, and dredge and fill permits.

Regulatory Compliance

We advise clients on all aspects of regulatory and permit compliance including responses to agency inspections, recordkeeping and reporting/notification obligations, and  development of internal compliance auditing strategies or other tailored internal procedures to minimize the potential for adverse regulatory enforcement. In addition, we assist clients in developing detailed technical and legal responses to alleged violations of law, permit, or rule in order to settle violations in a mutually acceptable manner. This may include development of in-kind settlement solutions or acceptable pollution prevention plans that can offset a proposed penalty amount, particularly in the context of representation of governmental agencies.

Rulemaking and Rule Challenges

The Government Affairs Practice Group provides legal assistance to clients by monitoring and participating in agency rulemaking proceedings in order to ensure that the clients’ perspectives are presented to the agency and reflected in the record of rulemaking. In addition, we represent clients in administrative challenges to existing and proposed rules, as well as to those agency statements that meet the definition of a rule but have not been formally adopted. Our experience in rulemaking and rule challenge matters ranges across a wide array of subjects including, for example, such diverse matters as building code criteria, professional and business licensure, environmental permitting, state tax, and insurance.

Solid & Hazardous Waste

We handle all aspects of solid and hazardous waste regulation, permitting, and compliance including closure permits, matters relating to various special wastes such as bio-hazardous waste, used oil, PCBs, construction and demolition debris, asbestos containing building materials and wastes, automobile shredder residue and other metal recycling and scrap industry related wastes, landfill operation and permitting, and waste transportation issues.

Stormwater Permitting

We represent clients before federal, state and local government agencies in addressing issues concerning stormwater and stormwater permitting. We work with clients and assist in the preparation of permit applications that meet all applicable regulatory requirements. Typically, this involves the coordination of engineers and consultants in collecting the necessary information to complete the application. In addition, we represent clients in conjunction with enforcement issues concerning existing stormwater permits.

Wetlands/Dredge & Fill/Mitigation Banking

The Environmental Law Practice Group members have significant experience representing clients in connection with a wide range of environmental permitting and compliance matters, particularly in the areas of wetlands, dredge and fill, and mitigation banking. We are experienced guiding clients through Section 404 and other permitting by the Army Corps of Engineers. Moreover, we are experienced in the permitting of compensatory mitigation banks and the utilization of mitigation credits purchased from such banks on specific projects.


With professional skill and integrity, HBS attorneys have successfully represented many clients through mediation, motion practice, administrative bodies, bench and jury trials.  We have represented clients before the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, the Georgia Environmental Protection Division, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the U. S. Army Corp of Engineers. Some recent litigation highlights are

  • Successfully defended toxic/tort products liability case involving complex chemical liability issues–the Georgia Supreme Court used this case to affirm the Constitutionality of Georgia’s expert witness tort reform statue
  • Successfully defended entities sued by Cherokee County Board of Commissioners and Cherokee County fire-fighters for mold exposure
  • Represented clients on Clean Water Act issues
  • Successfully defended asbestos-related environmental and mass tort claims
  • Successfully defended a County’s Wastewater Discharge Permit through the appeals process all the way to the Georgia Supreme Court.
Brad Carver speaks at Groundwater Protection Council Annual Forum

Author - Brad Carver

Georgia Environmental Conference Water Supply- Reservoirs in GA.

Author - D. Scott Cole

Related Industries

Energy, Utilities and Power Systems

Hall Booth Smith provides comprehensive service, representing energy industry clients in a broad array of matters, including transactions, business operations, regulatory compliance, finance, tax, and litigation challenges.

Representing a wide variety of clients, including owners and developers of energy projects, energy producers, suppliers and consumers, municipal and investor-owned utilities, joint-action agencies, electric cooperatives, industrial end-users, independent power producers, and natural gas companies we help our clients identify and leverage business opportunities, establish and implement long-term strategic business plans, manage risk, assure regulatory compliance, and devise effective solutions to the many challenges arising in their constantly evolving industry.

We offer strategic guidance throughout the life cycle of our clients’ businesses, assist with lobby efforts and government relations, and assure that our clients’ interests are protected. As national coordinating counsel for a major insurance company on all of its catastrophic electric line contact cases, we are particularly knowledgeable about and adept at handling insurance issues affecting the industry.

HBS Energy attorneys are members of industry organizations, frequently speak on energy-related issues and regularly monitor legislative, judicial and regulatory developments and industry trends in order to help our clients effectively integrate these changes into their business practices, policies, regulatory compliance efforts and approach to litigation.

Food & Agriculture

Scientific developments, technological efficiencies, global trade, and government support and regulation have changed food and fiber production in the United States into a sophisticated and complex business. From a farmer’s field to a consumer’s kitchen table, complicated legal issues now arise for growers, agribusinesses, distributors, brokers, and food retailers. Hall Booth Smith (HBS) specializes in providing legal counsel to and litigation and regulatory advocacy for farmers and agribusinesses.

Because most of our Agriculture Law Practice Group attorneys either grew up on a farm, earned degrees in agriculture, or have spent their careers counseling farmers and agribusinesses, our specific and keen understanding of the business practices and needs of farmers and agribusinesses superiorly position us to handle any agricultural matter. With six offices located throughout Georgia and offices in South Carolina, Tennessee and Florida, we couple the expertise and reputation of a large firm with the accessibility of a local firm.

The legal issues farmers and agribusinesses face are often unique to the agriculture sector. For example, HBS handles issues for buyers and sellers under the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act (PACA), a complex federal statute which establishes a code of fair business practices that protects businesses dealing in fresh and frozen fruits and vegetables. In many cases, the laws relevant to the issues facing agriculturists arise out of the laws and regulations that are applicable to any contract, insurance policy, property right, business organization, or succession plan.

Real Estate

Hall Booth Smith guides real estate industry clients through the complexities of real property purchases, assessments, sales and leases, land use, zoning, financing and environmental issues,  and a host of other concerns.  HBS team represents virtually all players in the industry, including owners and occupiers, developers, real estate advisers, lenders, pension funds, insurance companies, governments, and hotel owners and operators. HBS , negotiates commercial and residential transactions of all types and sizes. Our real estate attorneys have advised clients throughout the life cycle of their property ownership from acquisition through development.


Hall Booth Smith provides transactional and operational counsel as well as investigative and litigation services to a wide variety of public and private school entities, their administrators and boards, and others involved with the education sector. We have represented K-12 educational institutions, colleges and universities, school district board members, administrators and staff, handling the full range of school-related issues they encounter, including civil rights, First Amendment rights, student discipline, school violence, special education, testing/promotion, access to student records, and fraternity and sorority matters. Our Education lawyers also advise on and resolve employment and labor issues including teacher evaluations, remediation and discipline, teacher dismissals, at-will employment, sexual harassment, and Title VII, as well as represent professional educators in internal investigations and disciplinary proceedings and other matters related to their employment.

Recognizing that the most effective solution is prevention, we review our clients’ existing policies and help them devise risk avoidance strategies and comprehensive rules, policies, and procedures to minimize their exposure. As an added value, HBS lawyers offer training programs to assure that our clients’ administrators, school board members, school system officials, educators, and staff fully understand the rules and the importance of compliance. Through these workshops, attendees learn to readily identify and address issues and concerns before they become problems.

Government & Municipalities

With a team of former and current government leaders , and those actively involved in various areas of government, HBS offers comprehensive representation and advice to those in government, including states, counties, cities, non-profits and other related industries.

Our team members are regarded as among the most influential leaders in the state of Georgia and are repeatedly recognized for their work on behalf of clients in the government arena. Regularly interacting with legislative leaders concerning client needs, we maintain close working relationships with elected officials, appointed officials, and agency staff, enhancing our ability to provide expertise and counsel. Leveraging our connections, regulatory know-how and legal experience, we work with local, county and state government officials to craft good policy and address our clients’ legislative, regulatory and legal concerns.

HBS attorneys assist clients with the full range of local, county and state government affairs, regulatory matters, lobbying efforts, and political and campaign finance issues. Understanding the regulatory framework which affects our clients’ business operations, we are particularly adept at helping related regulated industries such as utilities, energy and trade associations, telecommunication companies, health care, insurance, local governments, and nonprofit organizations with compliance matters.


Hall Booth Smith has decades of experience providing transportation industry clients with comprehensive, strategic business and regulatory advice and effective legal representation.

Our firm represents a wide array of entities in transportation-related litigation, including owner-operators, insurers, insureds and various self-insurance funds, as well as aviation companies, oil and gas companies and railroads.

HBS attorneys have counseled transportation industry clients regarding virtually every issue affecting the industry and have litigated disputes throughout the country on nearly every facet of transportation law.

We also regularly work with clients to devise, implement and enforce risk avoidance strategies. Applying the experience gained from decades litigating industry-related disputes, we offer clients effective and cost-efficient representation in courts as well as before government agencies such as the Federal Highway Administration, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, the Federal Railroad Administration, the National Transportation Safety Board, state Departments of Transportation, and other regulatory bodies.